The Tennessee River
Providing valuable resources, recreation and fun.
The Tennessee River is the largest tributary of the Ohio River. It is approximately 652 miles long and is located in the southeastern United States in the Tennessee Valley.
The Tennessee River is formed at the confluence of the Holston and French Broad rivers on the east side of present-day Knoxville, Tennessee. From Knoxville, it flows southwest through East Tennessee toward Chattanooga before crossing into Alabama. It loops through northern Alabama and eventually forms a small part of the state’s border with Mississippi, before returning to Tennessee. At this point, it defines the boundary between two of Tennessee’s Grand Divisions: Middle and West Tennessee.
Tennessee River Species
The Tennessee River is home to various species. The Tennessee River is one of the most aquatically biodiverse river systems in North America making it home to various species. It is also habitat for the largest nesting population of bald eagles in the United States. The Nature Conservancy considers the Tennessee Basin as a whole to be the single most biologically diverse river system for aquatic organisms in the United States. It also harbors the highest number of imperiled species of any large basin in North America with 57 fish species and 47 mussel species considered to be “at-risk.” The southeastern U.S. possesses about 90% of the world’s species of mussels and crayfish, about 73% of the aquatic snails, and about 50% of the freshwater fish of the continental United States. The Tennessee River system alone is home to about 230 species of fish and 100 species of mussels, many of which are endemic to the watershed. The Tennessee River is currently the most important source of commercial mussels in the world.
Keep your rivers flowing as they will, and you will continue to know the most important of all freedoms—the boundless scope of the human mind to contemplate wonders, and to begin to understand their meaning. — David Brower.
The natural resources of the Tennessee River watershed generate millions of dollars for state and local governments. Thousands of people enjoy the Tennessee River and its tributaries for fishing, canoeing, kayaking, sailing, swimming, hiking, nature photography, picnicking, birdwatching, windsurfing, camping, water skiing, and wakeboarding.
Many citizens fish the Tennessee River and its tributaries for fun, sport, or to provide food. The Tennessee River and its tributaries are nationally renowned for all types of sport and recreational fishing. The BassMasters Tournament is often held on the Tennessee River as are other major fishing tournaments. Fishing for largemouth and smallmouth bass is especially popular.
Thousands of people enjoy the Tennessee River each year for boating of all kinds from sailboats, motorboats, bassboats to kayaks and canoes – the Tennessee River welcomes boaters and vessels of all shapes and sizes. The Tennessee River watershed is home to some of the best canoeing, kayaking, and rafting in the United States. Commercial rafting is popular on the Ocoee River and Hiawassee River. Canoers and kayakers find everything from calm family floats to raging whitewater and steep creeking. Tellico River in East Tennessee and the South Sauty Creek on Alabama’s Lake Guntersville are both regarded as challenging creek runs and are just a few of the many “experts only” runs in the watershed.
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The Tennessee Valley Authority is required by the TVA Act to maintain a nine-foot wide channel on the Tennessee River in order to allow commercial vessels to efficiently move their goods by water year round. Nine main and four auxiliary locks, located directly on the Tennessee River, allow for both commercial and recreational boat traffic to navigate down the river. As a result of the river’s availability for commercial water transportation, truck and rail prices are lowered. Approximately 54 million tons of goods are transported on the Tennessee River each year. Commercial navigation makes it possible for east Tennessee to be a major distribution center for fertilizer, asphalt, and salt. Zinc mines in Jefferson County, Tennessee, depend heavily on barge transportation to deliver zinc to customers downriver. The poultry industry would not be located in northern Alabama without commercial barge traffic options on the Tennessee (and Black Warrior) River systems; partly due to shipping options throughout the Midwest and South and also the availability of grains that can be transported cheaply by barge from the upper Midwest.